Archive for the 'Software' category

Complex argument matching in Mockery

published on May 08, 2017.

This past weekend I did some issue maintenance and bug triage on Mockery. One thing I noticed going through all these issues, is that people were surprised when learning about the \Mockery::on() argument matcher. I know Mockery’s documentation isn’t the best documentation out there, but this still is a documented feature.

First of all, Mockery supports validating arguments we pass when calling methods on a mock object. This helps us expect a method call with one (set of) argument, but not with an other. For example:

<?php
$mock = \Mockery::mock('AClass');

$mock->shouldReceive('doSomething')
    ->with('A string')
    ->once();

$mock->shouldReceive('doSomething')
    ->with(42)
    ->never();

This will tell Mockery that the doSomething method should receive a call with A string as an argument, once, but never with the number 42 as an argument.

Nice and simple.

But things are not always so simple. Sometimes they are more complicated and complex.

When we need to do a more complex argument matching for an expected method call, the \Mockery::on() matcher comes in really handy. It accepts a closure as an argument and that closure in turn receives the argument passed in to the method, when called. If the closure returns true, Mockery will consider that the argument has passed the expectation. If the closure returns false, or a “falsey” value, the expectation will not pass.

I have used the \Mockery::on() matcher in various scenarios — validating an array argument based on multiple keys and values, complex string matching… and every time it was invaluable. Though, now that I think back, the older the codebase, the higher the usage frequency was. Oh, well.

Say, for example, we have the following code. It doesn’t do much; publishes a post by setting the published flag in the database to 1 and sets the published_at to the current date and time:

<?php
namespace Service;
class Post
{
    public function __construct($model)
    {
        $this->model = $model;
    }

    public function publishPost($id)
    {
        $saveData = [
            'post_id' => $id,
            'published' => 1,
            'published_at' => gmdate('Y-m-d H:i:s'),
        ];
        $this->model->save($saveData);
    }
}

In a test we would mock the model and set some expectations on the call of the save() method:

<?php
$postId = 42;

$modelMock = \Mockery::mock('Model');
$modelMock->shouldReceive('save')
    ->once()
    ->with(\Mockery::on(function ($argument) use ($postId) {
        $postIdIsSet = isset($argument['post_id']) && $argument['post_id'] === $postId;
        $publishedFlagIsSet = isset($argument['published']) && $argument['published'] === 1;
        $publishedAtIsSet = isset($argument['published_at']);

        return $postIdIsSet && $publishedFlagIsSet && $publishedAtIsSet;
    }));

$service = new \Service\Post($modelMock);
$service->publishPost($postId);

\Mockery::close();

The important part of the example is inside the closure we pass to the \Mockery::on() matcher. The $argument is actually the $saveData argument the save() method gets when it is called. We check for a couple of things in this argument:

  • the post ID is set, and is same as the post ID we passed in to the publishPost() method,
  • the published flag is set, and is 1, and
  • the published_at key is present.

If any of these requirements is not satisfied, the closure will return false, the method call expectation will not be met, and Mockery will throw a NoMatchingExpectationException.

Happy hackin’!

Open source taught me how to work with legacy code

published on April 28, 2017.

Contributing to open source projects has many benefits — you learn and you teach, you can make friends or find business partners, you might get a chance to travel. Even have a keynote at a conference, like Gary did.

Contributing to open source projects was the best decision I made in my professional career. Just because I contributed to, and blogged about Zend Framework, I ended up working and consulting for a company for four and a half years. I learned a lot during that time.

What I realized just recently is that open source also taught me how to work with legacy code. It taught me how to find my way around an unknown codebase faster, where to look and what to look for when investigating an issue. Most importantly, it taught me how to react to legacy code.

Usually when people hear “legacy code”, they think code that was written by a bunch of code monkeys who know nothing about writing good software. The past was stupid, the present is smart and wise, and will make everything better for the future. A long time ago, I was the same.

Today, my thinking and my approach is completely different.

I have the utmost respect for the programmer and their code that is before me. Rarely do I have the privilege knowing the circumstances under which a piece of legacy code was written.

In many cases the original author of the code is not on the team any more, or they just don’t remember why was some decision made and a piece of code written in a certain way. It might be a hack workaround for a code that was written by someone even before their time on the project. Maybe they didn’t know better at the time, or maybe they indeed made an error and now it’s my bug to fix.

Whatever the reason is, the code is written, used, and it delivers business value. It requires maintenance, fixes, and improvements and I welcome the challenges it brings.

Happy hackin’!

PHP-FPM security limit extensions issue

published on February 03, 2017.

For the first time ever I saw this error:

2017/02/03 11:45:04 [error] 14656#0: *1 FastCGI sent in stderr: "Access to the script '/var/www/web' has been
denied (see security.limit_extensions)" while reading response header from upstream, client: 127.0.0.1, server:
proj.loc, request: "GET / HTTP/1.1", upstream: "fastcgi://unix:/var/run/php-fpm/www.sock:", host: "proj.loc"

I mean… what? security.limit_extensions? I honestly never heard of this before.

The PHP manual describes it as:

Limits the extensions of the main script FPM will allow to parse. This can prevent configuration mistakes on the web server side. You should only limit FPM to .php extensions to prevent malicious users to use other extensions to execute php code. Default value: .php .phar

Basically to avoid executing what an application might consider as a non-PHP file as a PHP file.

OK, cool, but why am I getting this error?

The currently top answer on Google suggests setting the list of limited extensions to an empty string, to practically disable the security.limit_extensions configuration. That fixes the error, but I’m really not comfortable with setting a security related configuration to a blank value, especially when people smarter than me set that configuration to a sane default value.

There must be a better, proper way to fix this, and this does feel like I misconfigured something in the nginx/php-fpm stack.

Accessing a folder as a script?

The Access to the script '/var/www/web' has been denied part of the error messages also looks weird. Why would php-fpm try to access /var/www/web, which is a directory, as a script? Seems like it doesn’t see the actual PHP script, and that sounds awfully similar to that old, dreaded No input file specified error message.

And that one is, in most cases, caused by not including the fastcgi.conf params file in the location block in the nginx configuration files. I double checked the configuration file and yup, I missed to include the fastcgi params file:

server {
    # configuration for the server
    location ~ \.php$ {
        # configuration for php
        include fastcgi.conf; # << I missed this!
    }
}

I restarted nginx and everything works just fine, without touching the security.limit_extensions configuration.

Happy hackin’!

Search and replace in visual selection in Vim

published on January 23, 2017.

The search and replace feature is very powerful in Vim. Just do a :help :s to see all the things it can do.

One thing that always bothered me though, is that when I select something with visual, try to do a search and replace on it, Vim actually does it on the entire line, not just on the selection.

What the…? There must be a way to this, right?

Right. It’s the \%V atom.

Instead of doing :'<,'>s/foo/bar/g to replace foo with bar inside the selection, which will replace all foo occurences with bar on the entire line, the correct way is to use the \%V atom and do :'<,'>s/\%Vfoo/bar/g.

I’m using this approach in the HugoHelperLink fuction of my Vim Hugo Helper plugin.

Happy hackin’!

Tags: vim, search, replace.
Categories: Software, Blablabla.

XFCE4 desktop zooming with the keyboard

published on January 19, 2017.

XFCE4 has a zoom feature available when the desktop composition is turned on. By default, holding the Alt key and scrolling up or down the mouse wheel, I can zoom in or out the entire desktop. Once zoomed in, it follows the mouse pointer as to which part of the desktop to show.

I prefer doing as much as possible from my keyboard, and to use the mouse only when necessary.

I don’t care much for desktop composition, the transparent windows and animations are not my thing.

Toggle desktop composition

Given that desktop composition is required for the zooming feature, I want it enabled only when I want to use the zoom feature itself.

Using the following command, I can toggle the composition on and off:

xfconf-query --channel=xfwm4 --property=/general/use_compositing --type=bool --toggle

xdotool to fake the mouse

xdotool is a nice little program that fakes keyboard and mouse input, among other things.

Using that, running the following command from the terminal, zooms in:

xdotool keydown Alt click 4 keyup Alt

and this command zooms out:

xdotool keydown Alt click 5 keyup Alt

Just to make all this even easier, I put these commands in a couple of bash scripts and added them as keyboard shortcuts.

Now I have Super C to toggle the desktop composition, Alt + to zoom in and Alt - to zoom out.

Happy hackin’!

Robert Basic

Robert Basic

Software engineer, consultant, open source contributor.

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